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Resilience Engineering
Author: David D. Woods
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 131706528X
Pages: 416
Year: 2017-11-01
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For Resilience Engineering, 'failure' is the result of the adaptations necessary to cope with the complexity of the real world, rather than a breakdown or malfunction. The performance of individuals and organizations must continually adjust to current conditions and, because resources and time are finite, such adjustments are always approximate. This definitive new book explores this groundbreaking new development in safety and risk management, where 'success' is based on the ability of organizations, groups and individuals to anticipate the changing shape of risk before failures and harm occur. Featuring contributions from many of the worlds leading figures in the fields of human factors and safety, Resilience Engineering provides thought-provoking insights into system safety as an aggregate of its various components, subsystems, software, organizations, human behaviours, and the way in which they interact. The book provides an introduction to Resilience Engineering of systems, covering both the theoretical and practical aspects. It is written for those responsible for system safety on managerial or operational levels alike, including safety managers and engineers (line and maintenance), security experts, risk and safety consultants, human factors professionals and accident investigators.
Resilience Engineering
Author: Professor David D Woods, Professor Nancy Leveson, Professor Erik Hollnagel
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409463060
Pages: 410
Year: 2012-10-01
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For Resilience Engineering, 'failure' is the result of the adaptations necessary to cope with the complexity of the real world, rather than a malfunction. Human performance must continually adjust to current conditions and, because resources and time are finite, such adjustments are always approximate. Featuring contributions from leading international figures in human factors and safety, Resilience Engineering provides thought-provoking insights into system safety as an aggregate of its various components - subsystems, software, organizations, human behaviours - and the way in which they interact.
Resilience Engineering
Author: Erik Hollnagel, David D. Woods, Nancy Leveson
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 075468136X
Pages: 410
Year: 2007
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For Resilience Engineering, 'failure' is the result of the adaptations necessary to cope with the complexity of the real world, rather than a malfunction. Human performance must continually adjust to current conditions and, because resources and time are finite, such adjustments are always approximate. Featuring contributions from leading international figures in human factors and safety, Resilience Engineering provides thought-provoking insights into system safety as an aggregate of its various components - subsystems, software, organizations, human behaviours - and the way in which they interact.
Resilience Engineering in Practice
Author: Jean Pariès, John Wreathall
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317065255
Pages: 362
Year: 2017-05-15
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Resilience engineering has since 2004 attracted widespread interest from industry as well as academia. Practitioners from various fields, such as aviation and air traffic management, patient safety, off-shore exploration and production, have quickly realised the potential of resilience engineering and have became early adopters. The continued development of resilience engineering has focused on four abilities that are essential for resilience. These are the ability a) to respond to what happens, b) to monitor critical developments, c) to anticipate future threats and opportunities, and d) to learn from past experience - successes as well as failures. Working with the four abilities provides a structured way of analysing problems and issues, as well as of proposing practical solutions (concepts, tools, and methods). This book is divided into four main sections which describe issues relating to each of the four abilities. The chapters in each section emphasise practical ways of engineering resilience and feature case studies and real applications. The text is written to be easily accessible for readers who are more interested in solutions than in research, but will also be of interest to the latter group.
Resilience Engineering
Author: Nii Attoh-Okine
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521193494
Pages: 202
Year: 2016-04-11
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The book is intended for readers who have backgrounds in probability. It is suitable for practicing engineers, analysts, and researchers.
Governance and Control of Financial Systems
Author: Gunilla Sundström, Erik Hollnagel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317126017
Pages: 216
Year: 2017-06-12
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The recent financial crisis has made it paramount for the financial services industry to find new perspectives to look at their industry and, most importantly, to gain a better understanding of how the global financial system can be made less vulnerable and more resilient. The primary objective of this book is to illustrate how the safety science of Resilience Engineering can help to gain a better understanding of what the financial services system is and how to improve governance and control of financial services systems by leveraging some of its key concepts. Resilience is the intrinsic ability of a system to adjust its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustain required operations under both expected and unexpected conditions. This definition is focused on the ability to function, rather than just to be impervious to failure, and thereby bridges the traditional conflict between productivity and safety. The core concept of the book is that the behaviour of the financial services system is the result of the tight couplings among the humans, organizations and technologies that are necessary to provide complex financial functions such as the transfer of economic resources. It is a consequence of this perspective that the risks associated with these systems cannot be understood without considering the nature of these tight couplings. Adopting this perspective, the book is designed to provide some answers to the following key questions about the financial crisis: - What actually happened? - Why and how did it happen? - Could something similar happen again? How can we see that in time and how can we control it? - How can sustainable recovery of the global financial system be established? How can its resilience be improved?
The ETTO Principle: Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off
Author: Professor Erik Hollnagel
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409485994
Pages: 162
Year: 2012-10-01
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Accident investigation and risk assessment have for decades focused on the human factor, particularly ‘human error’. This bias towards performance failures leads to a neglect of normal performance. It assumes that failures and successes have different origins so there is little to be gained from studying them together. Erik Hollnagel believes this assumption is false and that safety cannot be attained only by eliminating risks and failures. The alternative is to understand why things go right and to amplify that. The ETTO Principle looks at the common trait of people at work to adjust what they do to match the conditions. It proposes that this efficiency-thoroughness trade-off (ETTO) is normal. While in some cases the adjustments may lead to adverse outcomes, these are due to the same processes that produce successes.
Resilient Health Care
Author: Professor Robert L Wears, Professor Erik Hollnagel, Professor Jeffrey Braithwaite
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472469194
Pages: 296
Year: 2015-09-28
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Properly performing health care systems require concepts and methods that match their complexity. Resilience engineering provides that capability. It focuses on a system’s overall ability to sustain required operations under both expected and unexpected conditions rather than on individual features or qualities. This book contains contributions from international experts in health care, organisational studies and patient safety, as well as resilience engineering. Whereas current safety approaches primarily aim to reduce the number of things that go wrong, Resilient Health Care aims to increase the number of things that go right.
Behind Human Error
Author: David D. Woods, Sidney Dekker, Richard Cook, Leila Johannesen, Nadine Sarter
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1317175530
Pages: 292
Year: 2017-09-18
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Human error is cited over and over as a cause of incidents and accidents. The result is a widespread perception of a 'human error problem', and solutions are thought to lie in changing the people or their role in the system. For example, we should reduce the human role with more automation, or regiment human behavior by stricter monitoring, rules or procedures. But in practice, things have proved not to be this simple. The label 'human error' is prejudicial and hides much more than it reveals about how a system functions or malfunctions. This book takes you behind the human error label. Divided into five parts, it begins by summarising the most significant research results. Part 2 explores how systems thinking has radically changed our understanding of how accidents occur. Part 3 explains the role of cognitive system factors - bringing knowledge to bear, changing mindset as situations and priorities change, and managing goal conflicts - in operating safely at the sharp end of systems. Part 4 studies how the clumsy use of computer technology can increase the potential for erroneous actions and assessments in many different fields of practice. And Part 5 tells how the hindsight bias always enters into attributions of error, so that what we label human error actually is the result of a social and psychological judgment process by stakeholders in the system in question to focus on only a facet of a set of interacting contributors. If you think you have a human error problem, recognize that the label itself is no explanation and no guide to countermeasures. The potential for constructive change, for progress on safety, lies behind the human error label.
Human Reliability Analysis
Author: Erik Hollnagel
Publisher:
ISBN: 0123526582
Pages: 336
Year: 1993-01-01
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This book discusses how cognitive models are applied to the analysis of human decision making in complex technical domains, and provides a critique of existing models of human cognition. It is the first extended discussion of the existing approach to human-cognitive modelling in applied settings which puts forward an alternative approach. This is a new and fresh approach to human performance analysis-it is of interest to anyone not currently satisfied with existing models. Key Features * Recognizes that the control of human actions is determined by the context as well as cognitive function * New approach produced an improved quantitative analysis of human performance as a basis of later quantitative reliability assessment
Safety-I and Safety-II
Author: Professor Erik Hollnagel
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1472423070
Pages: 200
Year: 2014-05-28
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Safety has traditionally been defined as a condition where the number of adverse outcomes was as low as possible (Safety-I). From a Safety-I perspective, the purpose of safety management is to make sure that the number of accidents and incidents is kept as low as possible, or as low as is reasonably practicable. This means that safety management must start from the manifestations of the absence of safety and that - paradoxically - safety is measured by counting the number of cases where it fails rather than by the number of cases where it succeeds. This unavoidably leads to a reactive approach based on responding to what goes wrong or what is identified as a risk - as something that could go wrong. Focusing on what goes right, rather than on what goes wrong, changes the definition of safety from ‘avoiding that something goes wrong’ to ‘ensuring that everything goes right’. More precisely, Safety-II is the ability to succeed under varying conditions, so that the number of intended and acceptable outcomes is as high as possible. From a Safety-II perspective, the purpose of safety management is to ensure that as much as possible goes right, in the sense that everyday work achieves its objectives. This means that safety is managed by what it achieves (successes, things that go right), and that likewise it is measured by counting the number of cases where things go right. In order to do this, safety management cannot only be reactive, it must also be proactive. But it must be proactive with regard to how actions succeed, to everyday acceptable performance, rather than with regard to how they can fail, as traditional risk analysis does. This book analyses and explains the principles behind both approaches and uses this to consider the past and future of safety management practices. The analysis makes use of common examples and cases from domains such as aviation, nuclear power production, process management and health care. The final chapters explain the theoretical and practical consequences of the new perspective on the level of day-to-day operations as well as on the level of strategic management (safety culture). Safety-I and Safety-II is written for all professionals responsible for their organisation's safety, from strategic planning on the executive level to day-to-day operations in the field. It presents the detailed and tested arguments for a transformation from protective to productive safety management.
Resilient Health Care, Volume 2
Author: Robert L. Wears, Erik Hollnagel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 131706514X
Pages: 328
Year: 2017-03-02
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Health systems everywhere are expected to meet increasing public and political demands for accessible, high-quality care. Policy-makers, managers, and clinicians use their best efforts to improve efficiency, safety, quality, and economic viability. One solution has been to mimic approaches that have been shown to work in other domains, such as quality management, lean production, and high reliability. In the enthusiasm for such solutions, scant attention has been paid to the fact that health care as a multifaceted system differs significantly from most traditional industries. Solutions based on linear thinking in engineered systems do not work well in complicated, multi-stakeholder non-engineered systems, of which health care is a leading example. A prerequisite for improving health care and making it more resilient is that the nature of everyday clinical work be well understood. Yet the focus of the majority of policy or management solutions, as well as that of accreditation and regulation, is work as it ought to be (also known as ’work-as-imagined’). The aim of policy-makers and managers, whether the priority is safety, quality, or efficiency, is therefore to make everyday clinical work - or work-as-done - comply with work-as-imagined. This fails to recognise that this normative conception of work is often oversimplified, incomplete, and outdated. There is therefore an urgent need to better understand everyday clinical work as it is done. Despite the common focus on deviations and failures, it is undeniable that clinical work goes right far more often than it goes wrong, and that we only can make it better if we understand how this happens. This second volume of Resilient Health Care continues the line of thinking of the first book, but takes it further through a range of chapters from leading international thinkers on resilience and health care. Where the first book provided the rationale and basic concepts of RHC, the Resilience of Everyday Clinical Work b
Hazard Analysis Techniques for System Safety
Author: Clifton A. Ericson, II
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119101727
Pages: 640
Year: 2015-06-12
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Explains in detail how to perform the most commonly used hazard analysis techniques with numerous examples of practical applications • Includes new chapters on Concepts of Hazard Recognition, Environmental Hazard Analysis, Process Hazard Analysis, Test Hazard Analysis, and Job Hazard Analysis • Updated text covers introduction, theory, and detailed description of many different hazard analysis techniques and explains in detail how to perform them as well as when and why to use each technique • Describes the components of a hazard and how to recognize them during an analysis • Contains detailed examples that apply the methodology to everyday problems
Secure and Resilient Software Development
Author: Mark S. Merkow, Lakshmikanth Raghavan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498759610
Pages: 392
Year: 2015-09-15
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Although many software books highlight open problems in secure software development, few provide easily actionable, ground-level solutions. Breaking the mold, Secure and Resilient Software Development teaches you how to apply best practices and standards for consistent and secure software development. It details specific quality software development strategies and practices that stress resilience requirements with precise, actionable, and ground-level inputs. Providing comprehensive coverage, the book illustrates all phases of the secure software development life cycle. It shows developers how to master non-functional requirements including reliability, security, and resilience. The authors provide expert-level guidance through all phases of the process and supply many best practices, principles, testing practices, and design methodologies. For updates to this book and ongoing activities of interest to the secure and resilient software community, please visit: www.srsdlc.com "Secure and Resilient Software Development provides a strong foundation for anyone getting started in application security. Most application security books fall into two categories: business-oriented and vague or ridiculously super technical. Mark and Laksh draw on their extensive experience to bridge this gap effectively. The book consistently links important technical concepts back to the business reasons for application security with interesting stories about real companies dealing with application security issues." —Jeff Williams, Chair, The OWASP Foundation
Failure to Learn
Author: Andrew Hopkins
Publisher: CCH Australia Limited
ISBN: 1921322446
Pages: 186
Year: 2008
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"This book discusses the causes of a major explosion at the Texas City Oil Refinery on March 23, 2005. The explosion killed 15 workers and injured more than 170 others. Failure to Learn also analyses the similarities between this event and the Longford Gas Plant explosion in Victoria in 1998."--Provided by publisher.